All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. May peace and blessings be upon the Chief of the Messengers, Muhammad.
Indeed it is a great favour and blessing from Allah that He has made for His righteous servants periods of time within which they can increase in good deeds to attain great rewards and one of these opportunistic periods is the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah (the final month of the Islamic Calendar, in which the hajj is performed).
The excellence of these ten days have been mentioned in the Qur'ân and the Sunnah.
1. Allah says in the Qur'ân:
"By the dawn and by the ten nights … " [Al-Qur'ân 89:1-2]
Ibn Kathîr said that "the ten nights" referred to here are the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, and this opinion was also held by Ibn Abbâs, Ibn az-Zubair, Mujâhid and others.
2. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:
"There are no deeds as excellent as those done in these ten days." They (the companions listening) said, "Not even Jihâd?" He, peace be upon him, said, "No, not even Jihâd except a man who goes forth endangering his life and wealth and does not return with anything." [Recorded by al-Imâm al-Bukhârî]
3. Allah says:
" … and remember the name of Allah in the appointed days." [Al-Qur'ân 2:203]
Ibn Abbâs and Ibn Kathîr said this means in the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.
4. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said:
"There are no other days that are as great as these in the sight of Allah, the Most Sublime. Nor are there any deeds more beloved to Allah then those that are done in these ten days. So increase in tahlîl (to say lâ illaha illallah), takbîr (to say allahu akbar) and tahmîd (to say alhumdulillâh)." [Reported by at-Tabarânî in al-Mu'jum al-Kabîr]
5. With regards to the noble companion Saîd bin Jubair, when the days of Dhul-Hijjah began he would strive to increase in good actions with great intensity until he was unable to increase anymore. [Reported by ad-Dârimî]
6. Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Bârî:
"The most apparent reason for the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah being distinguished in excellence is due to the assembly of the greatest acts of worship in this period, i.e. salawât (prayers), siyâm (fasting), sadaqah (charity) and the hajj (pilgrimage). In no other periods do these great deeds combine."
1. The Prayer - It is highly recommended to perform the obligatory acts at their prescribed times (as early as possible) and to increase oneself in the superogatory acts, for indeed, this is what brings a person closer to their Lord. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said:
"Upon you is to increase in your prostration to Allah, for verily you do not prostrate to Allah with even one prostration, except that He raises you in degrees and decreases your sins because of it." [Reported by Muslim]
2. Fasting - This has been mentioned as one of the acts of righteousness where Hanbada ibn Khâlid reports on the authority of his wife who reports that some of the wives of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
The Prophet, upon whom be peace, would fast on the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of Âshûra and three days in every month. [Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dâwûd, an-Nisâî and others]
Al-Imâm an-Nawawî said that fasting in these ten days is extremely recommended.
3. Saying allahu akbar; lâ illaha illallah and alhamdulillâh - It is found in the aforementioned narration of Ibn 'Umar:
"So increase yourselves in saying lâ illaha illallah, allahu akbar and alhamdulillâh."
Al-Imâm Bukhârî, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
"Ibn 'Umar and Abû Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with them both, used to go out to the markets in the ten days saying the takbîr causing the people to follow them in this action."
He also said:
"Umar ibn al-Khattâb used to say the takbîr in his minaret in Mina, whereupon the people of the mosque hearing 'Umar, would start to say the takbîr as would the people in the markets until the whole of Mina was locked in glorifying Allah."
Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbîr in Mina during these ten days and after prayers, whilst on his bed, in his tent, in his gathering and whilst walking. What is recommended is to say the takbîr aloud due to the fact that 'Umar ibn al-Khattâb, his son and Abû Hurayrah used to do likewise, may Allah be pleased with them all.
Strive with us O Muslims in reviving this sunnah that has become lost in these times and it was almost forgotten, even amongst the people of righteousness and goodness all of which is unfortunately in opposition to what the best of generations were upon (preserving and maintaining the superogatory acts).
There are a number of ways of making takbîr that have been narrated by the companions and their followers and from these ways is the following:
- Allahu akbar, allahu akbar, allahu akbar kabîrun.
- Allahu akbar, allahu akbar, lâ ilaha illallah, wallahu akbar, wallahu akbar, wa lillahil hamd.
- Allahu akbar, allahu akbar, allahu akbar, lâ ilaha illallah, wallahu akbar, allahu akbar wa lillâhil hamd.
4. Fasting on the day of 'Arafah - Fasting has been affirmed on the day of 'Arafah, where it has been confirmed from the Prophet, peace be upon him, that he said regarding fasting on the day of 'Arafah:
"Be content with the fact that Allah will expiate for you your sins for the year before (the day of 'Arafah) and the year after (the day of 'Arafah)." [Reported by Muslim]
However, whoever is at 'Arafah as a pilgrim then fasting is not expected of him, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, stopped at 'Arafah to eat.